The configuration of SharePoint 2010 can be split in different parts including basic configuration as well as the configuration of services and Service Applications.
The following 3 steps should be done right after the installation:
Configure diagnostic logging because writing event log files can reduce performance.
If you need best practices for configuring diagnostic logging check out reference  at the bottom of the article.
Configure usage and health data collection
Next it is necessary to configure usage and health data collection.
Otherwise it will be configured automatically if you create a search service application where you can’t rename the database.
Next you can specify a mail server to send alerts, invitations or notifications.
If you don't specify an outgoing mail server you will be remembered by the SharePoint 2010 health analyzer.
Step 10: SharePoint 2010 Service Application configuration
Here are the resources used in this article: